Both Israelis and Palestinians have deep historical ties to the region. Israel’s creation in 1948 provided a haven for Jews, while Palestinians view it as the Nakba, or catastrophe, leading to their displacement.
Jerusalem holds religious importance for Jews, Muslims, and Christians. The status of the city, especially East Jerusalem, remains a contentious issue.
The 1948 war led to the displacement of around 700,000 Palestinians. The right of return for these refugees and their descendants remains a major point of dispute.
Wars in 1967 and 1973 resulted in Israel capturing territories like the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The status of these territories is still debated.
Israel’s establishment of settlements in the West Bank is considered illegal under international law by most countries. Their expansion remains a contentious issue.
Various peace initiatives, like the Oslo Accords and the Camp David summit, have been attempted but have not resulted in a lasting solution.
The vision of a Palestinian state alongside Israel is supported by many but has challenges, including Hamas’s rejection of Israel’s right to exist.
U.S. Policy Shifts:
The U.S. policy has seen changes, with the Trump administration not endorsing the two-state solution and recognizing Jerusalem as Israel’s capital.
The broader Middle East dynamics, including relations between Israel and Arab states, play a role in the conflict.
The surprise attack by Hamas in 2023 is the latest in a series of confrontations, highlighting the volatile nature of the situation.